Chapter 4

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Case study

Case Study: Two Ways to Reduce the Quantity of Smoking Demanded Public policymakers often want to reduce the amount that people smoke because of smoking’s adverse health effects. There are two ways that policy can attempt to achieve this goal. One way to reduce smoking is to shift the demand curve for cigarettes and other […]

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Supply and Demand Together

4-4a Equilibrium Figure 8 shows the market supply curve and market demand curve together. Notice that there is one point at which the supply and demand curves intersect. This point is called the market’s equilibrium. The price at this intersection is called the equilibrium price, and the quantity is called the equilibrium quantity. Here the equilibrium price is $2.00 […]

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4-3c Shifts in the Supply Curve

Because the market supply curve is drawn holding other things constant, when one of these factors changes, the supply curve shifts. For example, suppose the price of sugar falls. Sugar is an input into the production of ice cream, so the fall in the price of sugar makes selling ice cream more profitable. This raises […]

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4-3b Market Supply versus Individual Supply

Just as market demand is the sum of the demands of all buyers, market supply is the sum of the supplies of all sellers. The table in Figure 6 shows the supply schedules for the two ice-cream producers in the market—Ben and Jerry. At any price, Ben’s supply schedule tells us the quantity of ice […]

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4-3a The Supply Curve: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Supplied

The quantity supplied of any good or service is the amount that sellers are willing and able to sell. There are many determinants of quantity supplied, but once again, price plays a special role in our analysis. When the price of ice cream is high, selling ice cream is profitable, and so the quantity supplied is large. […]

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Supply

We now turn to the other side of the market and examine the behavior of sellers. Once again, to focus our thinking, let’s consider the market for ice cream. 4-3a The Supply Curve: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Supplied 4-3b Market Supply versus Individual Supply 4-3c Shifts in the Supply Curve

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4-2c Shifts in the Demand Curve Case Study

Because the market demand curve holds other things constant, it need not be stable over time. If something happens to alter the quantity demanded at any given price, the demand curve shifts. For example, suppose the American Medical Association discovered that people who regularly eat ice cream live longer, healthier lives. The discovery would raise […]

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4-2b Market Demand versus Individual Demand

The demand curve in Figure 1 shows an individual’s demand for a product. To analyze how markets work, we need to determine the market demand, the sum of all the individual demands for a particular good or service. The table in Figure 2 shows the demand schedules for ice cream of the two individuals in this market—Catherine […]

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